Mount Rinjani Lombok Volcano : How long does it take to climb Mount Rinjani
Ideally climbing Mount Rinjani takes an estimated 2 days and 4 days depending on the destination you want to reach, for example, Rinjani Peak with a height of 3726 MASL which only takes 2 days and 1 night to reach the summit with an average number of hours of travel from Sembalun Village.
Get to Sembalun crater rim which is 7 to 9 hours on average with a fit body condition with a minimum load of 30 kg, then the next day at 02.00 AM the climbers will climb from Sembalun crater rim to Summit 3726 MASL with an estimated time of 6 to 8 hours . You have to stay at the edge of the Sembalun crater if you want to climb to the top, why do you have to spend the night on the edge of the Sembalun crater because the weather conditions at the summit of Rinjani are erratic from day to night so you have to climb in the early morning.
Furthermore, if you want to continue to your favorite destination from Mount Rinjani, namely Segara Anak Lake, then you have to add 3 days and 2 nights from the previous estimated time with only the goal to the top of Rinjani. Camping At Lake Segara Anak, you can go to a warm hot spring (Aik kalak) bathing which is believed to refresh the condition of the body that is tired from climbing to the top and down the path to Lake Segara Anak.
From Lake Segara Anak, you have 2 options to return from Lake Segara Anak, namely returning to the Sembalun route which was previously taken from Sembalun Village or continuing to Senaru Crater rim and will end in Senaru Village, and usually the one most chosen by climbers is continue to Senaru crater rim to get a complete destination. So if that’s the case, a brief and clear explanation of how long it takes to climb Mount Rinjani can be achieved with an estimated time of 2 to 4 days depending on the goals to be achieved.
There is Mount Rinjani Package can be your Choice :
- 2 Day2 1 Night to Summit Rinjani
- 3 Days 2 N ights to Summit Rinjani and Segara anak lake
- 4 Days 3 Nights to Summit rinjani, sebagara anak lake, senaru crater rim or torean route
Mount Rinjani Lombok Volcano Trek
On average, Mount Rinjani, the tracks that are traversed when climbing and trekking to Mount Rinjani are quite difficult and require a fairly fit body condition, especially on the route from POS 3 to Sembalun Crater, which has an uphill slope so it is called the “Bukit of Regret” which is enough to make people sorry when climbing Rinjani, if you want to give up then everything feels far if you go back and continue.
Furthermore, you will find a fairly difficult track from the rim of the Sembalun crater to the top of Rinjani 376 meters above sea level which not everyone can climb up there. Not many of the climbers only arrived at “Leter e” and did not choose to reach the Summit.
You will encounter quite a challenging journey if you want to continue to Lake Segara Anak, because even though the conditions of the journey are declining, it requires extra energy to withstand step by step down the hill to Lake Segara Anak.
There are several tracks that you can choose if you want to climb to Rinani, namely the Sembalun route. Through this route you will be closer to Summit Rinjani so you only need 2 days and 1 night.
Furthermore, the Senaru Line, where this route is one of the favorite routes for climbers because it is famous for its comfort and cleanliness, is different from the famous Sseebalun route, which is polluted and dirty, especially with the motorbike taxis to POS 2 which reduces the impression of asari and comfort for climbers who often complain.
Furthermore, the torean route, where this path is another alternative to climbing Rinjani, so that not a few are used as a way to go back or down because it is widely used as a route for local people to bathe in warm water in the lake as children and the Milk Cave which is believed to be able to cure especially diseases. skin. So that’s the Mount Rinjani Trek and how difficult it is to climb Mount Rinjani and the difficulty of the Mount Rinjani trek.
Mount Rinjani Temperatur
|Mount Rinjani Lombok Volcano Weather
SENARU TRAIL TEMPERATURE AT NIGHT
|SENARU VILLAGE||20 – 25 0C|
|POST I||16 – 19 0C|
|POST II||15 – 17 0C|
|POST III||14 – 16 0C|
|CRATER RIM I (SENARU RIM )||10 – 13 0C|
SEMBALUN TRAIL TEMPERATURE AT NIGHT
|SEMBALUN VILLAGE||15 – 20 0C|
|POST I||14 – 18 0C|
|POST II||13 – 16 0C|
|POST III||12 – 14 0C|
|CRATER RIM II (SEMBALUN RIM )||9 – 12 0C|
( TOP )
( LAKE )
|12 – 18 0C|
At 3,726 m, Rinjani is the second highest volcano in Indonesia, second only to Mount Kerinci on Sumatra, and it dominates the landscape of the relatively small island of Lombok.
Within its huge 50 km² caldera sits the crater lake Segara Anak (Child of the Sea). Eruptions within the caldera have formed a new small cone called appropriately enough, Gunung Baru (New Mountain). Segara Anak has a natural hot spring.
The mountain and its satellites form the Mount Rinjani National Park (Taman Nasional Gunung Rinjani) – officially 41,000 hectares within the park boundaries and a further 66,000 hectares of protected forest outside.
In 2008, the Indonesian government proposed to UNESCO that Mount Rinjani be one of the world’s official geoparks. If this was approved by UNESCO, Mount Rinjani would become the first such geological park in Indonesia.
The oldest recorded historical eruption was in 1847. Previous to that this was a very remote region indeed, hence the lack of records.
There was a spate of activity from 1994 to 1995 which resulted in the further growth of the crater cone Gunung Baru, since renamed Gunung Barujari (Finger Mountain).
On 27 April 2009 Gunung Barujari became active again with that activity continuing through to May 2009. The summit ascent routes were closed at that time as the eruptions intensified with plumes of smoke and ash as high as 8,000 m. A Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI):2 rating was issued for the activity between May and December 2009. The ascent routes re-opened on September 14th 2009 but hiking routes down into the crater lake were still deemed unsafe and remained closed.
In February 2010 observers at the Gunung Rinjani Observation Post detected a smoke plume that rose 100 m from the volcano. The activity in early 2010 is centred about Gunung Barujari. On May 1st 2010 a column of smoke was again observed rising from Rinjani issuing eruptions 1,300-1,600 metres tall with thick brown color and strong pressure.
On May 5th 2010 a possible ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) and drifted 150 km NW. Accordingly the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation advised that intermittent activity could produce ash plumes to 1,500 m (5,000 ft) above the caldera. In light of this The Volcanic Explosivity Index Alert Level was raised to 2 with a recommendation that there be no activity within a radius of 4 km from the eruption at Gunung Barujari.
Rinjani erupted three further times on 23 May 2010 with activity continuing until 24 May 2010. According to the volcano’s official monitoring agency, ash from Mount Barujari was reported as rising up to 2 km into the atmosphere and damaged crops. Lava flowed into the caldera lake, pushing its temperature up from 21°C to 35°C, while smoke spread 12 km. The volcano did not directly threaten villagers during any of the eruptive activity in early 2010 however access to some sections of the Mountain was officially closed or restricted at some times.
The lower and mid levels of the mountain are quite heavily forested. Above the tree line though the slopes are barren and rugged scree slopes and volcanic rock. The views of the crater lake are quite breath-taking from the caldera rim, as is the sunrise. From the absolute peak you can see Bali to the west and Sumbawa to the east.
Flora and fauna
The lower and middle elevation slopes are densely forested with typical tropical species, including species which occupy the Wallacea transitional region between the SE Asian and Australasian flora. Fig trees are especially apparent in the lower forests, as are the giant Syzigium Jambu, with the gnarled and epiphyte-hung Engelhardia Bak Bakan becoming prominent in the higher elevations. Casuarina woodland (cemara) takes over higher up and eventually these give way to an alpine flora above the treeline.
Lombok is East of the Wallace Line and some bird species with Australasian affinities are therefore apparent. These include honeyeaters, cockatoos and green hanging parrots, in addition to species whose heartland is to the West including tits, weavers and tailor-birds. Bird life can be difficult to observe here due to the density of the forest, though if you have patience and are practised at mimicry many species can be tempted out from cover – if you have the time to spare and the forebearance of your trekking partners.
The familiar long-tailed grey macaque (the Bali temple monkey) is common right up to the crater rim. Of much more interest is the rare ebony leaf monkey which inhabits these forests and whose soft hooting contact call often provides a soothing backdrop to the birdsong. Rusa deer and muntjacs are more often heard than seen.
Most visitors arrive via the village of Senaru (600 m), on the northern side of the mountain and thus closer to the main resort areas of the west coast including Senggigi. The other possible entry point is Sembalun Lawang (1,150 m), on the eastern side, which is closer to the summit.
Both villages are accessed from the main north coast road.
Entry to the park costs Rp 150,000 per person. This fee is split up as follows: 13% to the national park authority, 62% to the Rinjani ecotourism trekking program (which is a shame given that the path are full of detritus thrown away by the guides and porters) and 25% for trek route maintenance etc.
WHAT TO SEE IN THE PARK
Segara Anak, the crater lake and Aik Kalak hot springs, at the crater rim
The Mulang Pakelem. This annual Hindu ceremony at the crater lake dates from the 18th century invasion of Lombok by Balinese from the kingdom of Karangasem and attracts hundreds of participants. The lake is sacred to Hindus and the sight of hundreds of white clad Hindu pilgrims sitting and praying here is a wonderfully uplifting experience.
Gua Susu (Susu Cave). One of the three famous caves (Gua Susu, Gua Payung, dan Gua Manik) at Rinjani
CLIMBING MOUNT RINJANI
The Segara Anak crater lake of Mount Rinjani. The obvious new cone is Gunung Baru.
At 3,726 m, Rinjani is the second highest volcano in Indonesia after Sumatra’s Gunung Kerinci. It is very climbable by visitors with a high level of physical fitness. Critical is to understand and respect this great mountain: sadly, visitors have died here through failing to follow sensible procedures and make all necessary preparations.
Few actually make the very strenuous effort required to reach the actual summit but instead stop at the crater rim (approx 2,700 m) where the views of the crater lake are mind blowing. To make the extra 1,000 m ascent to the very top requires a considerably higher level of fitness, not to mention strength of spirit and sense of adventure.
Typically, a trek to the crater rim involves two days and one night on the mountain. The longer ascent to the summit can be done with just one night’s camping but is often part of a longer trek of 3-4 days and two or three nights.
The current park entrance fee is Rp 150,000. Of this 13% is allocated to the Gunung Rinjani National Park, 62% to the Rinjani Trek Ecotourism Program and 25% to support the Rinjani Trek operation and maintenance program.
Don’t try to go it alone
An organised trek is by far the easiest, safest and most popular option but it is also quite possible to make all of your own arrangements and just hire equipment from one of the trekking centres on the mountain. Rinjani Park regulations stipulate the use of a certified guide so the people at the centre at the start of the hike are not happy to let you climb Rinjani without. With a lot of patience and explanations you can sign a paper wich says that you are responsible for yourself and not the organisation. You will still pay the entrance fee, but it is by far the cheapest option to walk by yourself.
The mountains Licensed Guide Association (HPI) issues certification to the Rinjani guides and porters but it should be understood that the certification standards and required training are no where near as rigorous as would be expected in many other countries. Serious accidents including fatalities do occur on Rinjani treks when led by these accredited guides.
Proper sturdy climbing/hiking boots are a plus but not neccesary, but a must is a substantial waterproof, windproof jacket, and a head lamp. If you are going to the top, use of poles (walking sticks) for getting through the scree (loose rock) at the top are also highly recommended. By 2,000 m, you will feel like you are not in the tropics any more as rising wet, hot air loses its temperature and may fall as rain. If inappropriate clothing becomes wet difficulties will set in as air temperatures towards the summit are as low as 4⁰C, often with a significant extra wind chill factor. You must prepare accordingly.
Mount Rinjani Location
Mount Rinjani Lombok Volcano (Indonesian: Gunung Rinjani) is an active volcano in Indonesia on the island of Lombok. Administratively the mountain is in the Regency of North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara (Indonesian: Nusa Tenggara Barat, NTB). It rises to 3,726 metres (12,224 ft), making it the second highest volcano in Indonesia. It is also the highest point in the Indonesian province of West Nusa Tenggara.
Adjacent to the volcano is a 6-by-8.5-kilometre (3.7 by 5.3 mi) caldera, which is filled partially by the crater lake known as Segara Anak or Anak Laut (Child of the Sea), due to the color of its water, as blue as the sea (laut). This lake is approximately 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above sea level and estimated to be about 200 metres (660 ft) deep; the caldera also contains hot springs. Sasak tribe and Hindu people assume the lake and the mount are sacred and some religious activities are occasionally done in the two areas. UNESCO has made Mount Rinjani Caldera a part of the Global Geoparks Network in April 2018.
Lombok is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, a small archipelago which, from west to east, consists of Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba and the Timor islands; all are located at the edge of the Australian continental shelf. Volcanoes in the area are formed due to the action of oceanic crusts and the movement of the shelf itself. Rinjani is one of at least 129 active volcanoes in Indonesia, four of which belong to the volcanoes of the Sunda Arc trench system forming part of the Pacific Ring of Fire – a section of fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and South East Asia.
The islands of Lombok and Sumbawa lie in the central portion of the Sunda Arc. The Sunda Arc is home to some of the world’s most dangerous and explosive volcanoes. The eruption of nearby Mount Tambora on Sumbawa is known for the most violent eruption in recorded history on 15 April 1815, with a scale 7 on the VEI.
The highlands are forest clad and mostly undeveloped. The lowlands are highly cultivated. Rice, soybeans, coffee, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, cacao, cloves, cassava, corn, coconuts, copra, bananas and vanilla are the major crops grown in the fertile soils of the island. The slopes are populated by the indigenous Sasak population. There are also some basic tourist related activities established on Rinjani primarily in or about the village of Senaru.
Mount Rinjani Lombok Volcano on the island of Lombok rises to 3,726 metres (12,224 ft), second in height among Indonesian volcanoes only to Sumatra‘s Kerinci volcano. Rinjani has a steep-sided conical profile when viewed from the east, but the western side of the compound volcano is truncated by the 6 x 8.5 km, oval-shaped Segara Anak caldera. The western half of the caldera contains a 230-metre-deep lake whose crescentic form results from growth of the post-caldera cone Barujari at the eastern end of the caldera.
Color infrared view of Rinjani Volcano on the island of Lombok, May 1992. The eastern part of the island of Bali to the west is visible in the top right corner, separated from Lombok by the Lombok Strait; the Alas Strait and the western part of the island of Sumbawa are visible on the bottom left.
Mount Rinjani Lombok Volcano Geologic summary
On the basis of the plate tectonics theory, Rinjani is one of the series of volcanoes built in the Lesser Sunda Islands due to the subduction of Indo-Australian oceanic crust beneath the Lesser Sunda Islands, and it is interpreted that the source of melted magma is about 165–200 kilometres (103–124 mi) depth.
The geology and tectonic setting of Lombok (and nearby Sumbawa) are described as being in the central portion of the Sunda Arc. The oldest exposed rocks are Miocene, suggesting that subduction and volcanism began considerably later than in Java and Sumatra to the west, where there are abundant volcanic and intrusive rocks of Late Mesozoic age. The islands are located on the eastern edge of the Sunda shelf, in a zone where crustal thickness is apparently rapidly diminishing, from west to east.
The seismic velocity structure of the crust in this region is transitional between typical oceanic and continental profiles and the Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho) appears to lie at about 20 kilometres (12 mi) depth. These factors tend to suggest that there has been limited opportunity for crustal contamination of magmas erupted on the islands of Lombok and Sumbawa. In addition, these islands lie to the west of those parts of the easternmost Sunda and west Banda arcs where collision with the Australian plate is apparently progressing.
The volcano of Rinjani is 165 to 190 kilometres (103–118 mi) above the Benioff Zone. There is a marked offset in the line of active volcanoes between the most easterly Sumbawa volcano (Sangeang Api) and the line of active volcanoes in Flores. This suggests that a major transcurrent fault cut across the arc between Sumbawa Island and Flores.
This is considered to be a feature representing a major tectonic discontinuity between the east and west Sunda Arcs (the Sumba Fracture). Further, a marked absence of shallow and intermediate earthquake activity in the region to the south of Lombok and Sumbawa is a feature interpreted to represent a marked break in the Sunda Arc Zone. Faulting and folding caused strong deformation in the eastern part of Lombok Basin and is characterized by block faulting, shale diapirs and mud volcano.
The Rinjani caldera-forming eruption is thought to have occurred in the 13th century. Dated to “late spring or summer of 1257,” this 1257 Samalas eruption is now considered the likely source of high concentrations of sulfur found in widely dispersed ice core samples and may have been “the most powerful volcanic blast since humans learned to write.” The massive eruption may have triggered an episode of global cooling and failed harvests. Before this eruption, the Segara Anak caldera was a volcanic mountain named Samalas, which was higher than Rinjani.
Eruption rate, eruption sites, eruption type and magma composition have changed during the last 10,000 years before the caldera forming eruption. The eruptions of 1994 and 1995 have presented at Gunung Baru (or ‘New Mountain’ – approximately 2,300 metres (7,500 ft) above sea level) in the center of this caldera and lava flows from subsequent eruptions have entered the lake. This cone has since been renamed Gunung Barujari (or ‘Gunung Baru Jari’ in Indonesian).
The first historical eruption Mount Rinjani Lombok Volcano occurred in September 1847. The most recent eruption of Mount Rinjani was in May 2010 and the most recent significant eruptions occurred during a spate of activity from 1994 to 1995 which resulted in the further development of Gunung Barujari.
Historical eruptions at Rinjani dating back to 1847 have been restricted to Barujari cone and the Rombongan dome (in 1944) and consist of moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows that have entered Segara Anak lake. The eruptive history of Rinjani prior to 1847 is not available as the island of Lombok is in a location that remained very remote to the record keeping of the era.
On 3 November 1994, a cold lahar (volcanic mudflow) from the summit area of Rinjani volcano traveled down the Kokok Jenggak River killing thirty people from the village of Aikmel who were caught by surprise when collecting water from the river in the path of the flow.
In connection with the eruption of the cone Gunung Barujari the status for Gunung Rinjani was raised from Normal (VEI Level 1) to ‘be vigilant’ (VEI Level 2) since 2 May 2009. In May 2010 Gunung Rinjani was placed in the standby status by Center for Volcanology & Geological Hazard Mitigation, Indonesia with a recommendation that there be no activity within a radius of 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the eruption at Gunung Barujari.
In Lombok, Mount Rinjani Lombok Volcano lies approximately 300 kilometres (190 mi) north of the Sunda Trench (also known as Java trench) and is situated about 170 kilometres (110 mi) above the active north dipping Benioff zone. Based on the composition of andesites which have very low Ni concentrations and low Mg/Mg+Fe It is suggested that the Rinjani suite is of mantle origin, but that all the andesites and dacites as well as many of the basalts have probably been modified by fractional crystallization processes.
It is concluded that the Rinjani calc-alkaline suite, which in many respects is typical of many suites erupted by circum-pacific volcanoes, probably originated by partial melting of the peridotite mantle-wedge overlying the active Benioff Zone beneath Lombok Island. The Pleistocene-Recent calcalkaline suite from the active volcano, Rinjani is composed of a diverse range of lavas.
These include: ankaramite, high-Al basalt, andesite, high-K andesite and dacite. Sr-isotopic and geochemical constraints suggest that this suite was derived from the sub-arc mantle. Geochemical models suggest that fractional crystallization is an important process in the suite’s differentiation, although the series: ankaramite-high-Al basalt-andesite-dacite does not represent a continuously evolving spectrum of liquids.
The summit, ash cone, and lake are all visible from this vantage point at 2,600m on the eastern ridge.In September 1995 an aviation report was issued concerning an unconfirmed ash cloud from Rinjani. A NOTAM about volcanic activity from Rinjani was issued by the Bali Flight Information Region on the morning of 12 September. An ash cloud was reportedly drifting to the south west with the cloud top around 4 km (2.5 mi) altitude.
On 3 November 1994, a cold lahar (volcanic mudflow) from the summit area of Rinjani volcano traveled down the Kokok Jenggak River killing thirty people from the village of Aikmel who were caught by surprise when collecting water from the river in the path of the flow. One person remained missing as of 9 November 1994. No damage to the village was reported. Local volcanologists noted that additional lahars could be triggered by heavy rainfall.
During 4 June 1994 – January 1995 the DVGHM (Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation) noted that explosions occurred on Rinjani. Those explosions came from the Barujari volcano.
Between 3 June 1994 and 21 November 1994 records of Rinjani’s eruptive history indicate activity accorded Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) with a rating of 3(?) with the area of activity described as Gunung Barujari. Eruptive characteristics documented for the events of that time are described as, central vent eruption with an explosive eruption, with pyroclastic flow(s), lava flow(s), fatalities and mudflow(s) (lahars).
In May 1994 a glow was noticed on the crater floor of Barujari cone, which at this time had undergone no significant activity since August 1966. A portable seismograph (PS-2) and telemetry seismograph (Teledyne) were put into operation on 27 May and 9 June, respectively. One volcanic earthquake event/day was recorded on 27, 28, 30, and 31 May. After 4 June, however, volcanic tremor with a maximum amplitude of 35 mm was recorded, presumably associated with the upward movement of magma.
At 0200 on 3 June1994, Barujari cone began erupting by sending an ash plume 500 m (1,600 ft) high. One 8 June 1994 press report described emission of “smoldering lava” and “thick smoke,” as well as ashfall in nearby villages from an ash cloud rising 1,500 m (4,900 ft) above the summit. Between 3 and 10 June 1994, up to 172 explosions could be heard each day from the Sembalun Lawang volcano observatory (about 15 km (9.3 mi) NE). During this period, seismic data indicated a dramatic increase in the number of explosions per day, from 68 to 18,720. Eruptions were continuous at least through 19 June 1994, with maximum ash plume heights of 2,000 m (6,600 ft) on 9–11 June 1994.
Between 28 March 1966 and 8 August 1966 records of Rinjani’s eruptive history indicate activity accorded a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) rating of 1. Lava volume of 6.6 million cubic metres (230×106 cu ft) and a tephra volume of 20,000 cubic metres (710,000 cu ft) was recorded. The area of activity described was the east side of Barujari at 2,250 m (7,380 ft). Eruptive characteristics were documented as a central vent eruption, explosive eruption and lava flow(s).
In December 1944, Rinjani appears to have had a significant event. Between 25 December 1944 and 1(?) January 1945 eruptive activity is rated 2 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) The event has been listed in the historical records of the Global Volcanism Program indicating a lava volume: of 74×106 m3 (2.6×109 cu ft) occurring in an area of activity on the north west flank of Barujari (Rombongan). The eruptive characteristics are described a central vent eruption on the flank (excentric) vent, a crater lake eruption, explosive eruption, lava flow(s) and a lava dome extrusion with associated damage to land, property.
On 27 September 2004 a DVGHM (Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation) report noted the decision to increase Rinjani’s hazard status to Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) Alert Level 2 (Yellow). During the last third of 2004, the number of volcanic and tectonic earthquakes had increased.
Their increase followed a rise in the number of tectonic earthquakes that began 18 August 2004. Tremor registered on 23, 24, 25, and 26 September 2004. Tremor amplitudes ranged between 12 and 13.5 mm, and the duration of the tremor stood between 94 and 290 seconds.
At 05:30 on 1 October 2004 Rinjani erupted. The eruption caused authorities to immediately raise the hazard status to Alert Level 3 (Orange). Details regarding the initial 1 October 2004 eruption are indistinct. During 2–5 October 2004 explosions sent ash columns 300 to 800 m (980–2,620 ft) above the summit.
Gray, thick ash columns drifted to the north and detonation sounds accompanied every explosion. Successive explosions occurred at intervals of 5 to 160 minutes. Explosions vented on the north eastern slope of Barujari volcano. Some material also vented from Barujari’s peak and fell down around its edifice. A press report in the Jakarta Post indicated that evacuations were not considered necessary.
A Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI):2 rating was issued for the activity between 1 May 2004 through to (on or after) 5 October 2004.
Activity since 2009
On 27 April 2009 Gunung Barujari became active, with activity continuing through to May 2009. The mountain was closed at that time as the eruptions intensified with plumes of smoke and ash as high as 8,000 m (26,000 ft). A Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI):2 rating was issued for the activity between 2 May 2009 and 20 December 2009. The activity during this period was described as having the characteristics of central vent eruption, flank (excentric) vent, explosive eruption and lava flow(s).
Rinjani erupted three times on 22 May 2010 with activity continuing until early on 23 May. According to the volcano’s official monitoring agency, ash from Mount Rinjani was reported as rising up to two kilometers into the atmosphere and damaged crops. The volcano did not threaten villagers at that time. Lava flowed into the caldera lake, pushing its temperature up from 21 to 35 °C (70 to 95 °F), while smoke spread 12 kilometres (7.5 mi).
In February 2010 observers at the Gunung Rinjani Observation Post located 1.25 km (4,100 ft) northeast of G. Rinjani saw one whitish-colored plume that rose 100 metres (328 ft) from the volcano. Dense whitish plumes (and possibly brown) rose 500 to 900 m (1,600–3,000 ft) in March 2010 on 26 occasions and as high as 1,500 m (4,900 ft) in April 2010 on 41 occasions. Plumes seen on 1 and 2 May 2010 were “chocolate” in color and rose a maximum height of 1,600 metres (5,200 ft).
From February 2010 through April 2010 seismicity decreased, although the maximum amplitude of earthquakes increased. CVGHM (Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation) also noted that ash eruptions and ejected incandescent material fell within Rinjani caldera, but some ash was blown out of the caldera.
The activity in early 2010 centred about Gunung Barujari, a post-caldera cone that lies within the Rinjani’s caldera lake of Segara Anak. The Volcanological Survey of Indonesia reported on 1 May 2010, that a column of smoke was observed rising from G. Rinjani “issuing eruptions 1300–1600 metres tall with thick brown color and strong pressure”.
Their report Evaluasi Kegiatan G. Rinjani of 4 May also stated that on 1 May 2010 at 10:00 four events of explosive earthquake were recorded with a maximum amplitude of 6–53 mm and 110 seconds long earthquake, earthquake tremor events with a maximum amplitude of 1 mm and 55 second long duration, 15 Local Tectonic earthquake events and two events of tectonic earthquake.
The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1–4) on 2 May 2010. Level 1 is “Normal” and Level 2 is “Advisory” with an Aviation Alert color of Yellow-Advisory. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Center) reported that on 5 May a possible ash plume from Rinjani rose to an altitude of 5.5 kilometres (3.4 mi) a.s.l. and drifted 150 kilometres (93 mi) NW.
The plume was not seen in imagery about six hours later. CVGHM (Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation) advised the VAAC that intermittent activity could produce ash plumes to 1.5 km (4,900 ft) above the caldera.
On 31 October 2015, Mount Rinjani started erupting again.
On 5 August 2018, a second earthquake struck Lombok, causing more landslides and small tsunamis due to its proximity to the northern coast. The area around Rinjani was evacuated due to concerns of a possible eruption, but no increase in activity was detected at Rinjani or the nearby volcano Mount Agung on Bali.
Gunung Rinjani Observation Post Rinjani Sembalun is located in the village of Lawang, Sub Sembalun 2.5 km (4000 feet) northeast of G. Rinjani) in the Regency of East Lombok. Observers at this post monitor G.Rinjani, G.Barujari/G.Tenga within the Segara Anak Caldera.
Rinjani National Park
The volcano and the caldera are protected by the Gunung Rinjani National Park established in 1997. Tourism is increasingly popular with trekkers able to visit the rim, make their way into the caldera or even to make the more arduous climb to the highest point; fatalities, however, are not unheard of.
In July 2009 the summit route was closed due to volcanic activity at that time and subsequently reopened when the activity decreased. During early 2010 up to and including May 2010 access to Rinjani was at times again restricted due to volcanic activity.
The park is popular for mountain climbs and trekking and represents an important nature reserve and water catchment area.
The park is officially 41,330 hectares (159.6 sq mi) within the park boundaries and includes a further 66,000 hectares (250 sq mi) of protected forest outside. The mountain and its satellites form the Mount Rinjani National Park (Taman Nasional Gunung Rinjani).
Mount Rinjani has obtained the World Legacy Award from Conservation International and Traveller (2004), and was a finalist for Tourism for Tomorrow Awards (2005 and 2008) from the World Travel Tourism Council (WTTC).
The Rinjani scops owl was found in 2003 and after 10 years of research was recognized as a new endemic species (specimens had been collected in the 19th century but had been identified as being Mollucas scops owls).